Ivan Vejvoda:

NATO treba držati otvorena vrata za zemlje Balkana

Zato je ovaj novi fokus za Zapadni Balkan, prvo od strane EU sa “Berlinskim procesom” koji je pokrenula kancelarka Angela Merkel prošle godine da bi se povećao proces proširenja i sada novi naglasak koji su dale Sjedinjene Države, ključni su za stabilnost Evrope i treba ga što snažnije potaći. To je razlog što odnos EU-NATO treba pojačati i naglasiti u budućnosti.

10.12.2015.

Ivan Vejvoda:

NATO Should Keep Opening Its Door to Balkan Nations

That is why this renewed focus, first of the EU for the Western Balkans with the "Berlin Process" engaged by Chancellor Angela Merkel last year to enhance the enlargement process and now the renewed emphasis placed by the United States, are crucial for Europe's stability and should be pursued even more vigorously. That is also why the EU-NATO relationship needs to be strengthened and enhanced in the future.

10.12.2015.

Na samitu NATO-a u Čikagu 2012, tadašnja američka tajnica Hillary Clinton je izjavila: “Vjerujem da će ovo biti posljednji samit koji nije samit o proširenju.” Mogla je odmah da se razočara: naredni samit NATO-a u Kardifu prošao je bez novih članova.

Sada, po prvi put u sedam godina, jedna nova zemlja pozvana je da postane zemlja članica. NATO je proglasio “politiku otvorenih vrata’ po Članu 10 koji je pojačan ove sedmice pozivom Crnoj Gori da se pridruži Savezu. Ovo je značajan trenutak za traženje sigurnosti i stabilnosti na Balkanu, i još šire u Evropi koja se suočava s brojnim izazovima.

Valjani su razlozi što od nedavno postoji obnovljen fokus za Balkan. Još nije postignut cilj – jedinstvena Evropa, slobodna i u miru. I s obzirom na istovremene krize u Ukrajini (kršenje njenog suvereniteta i terirorijalnog integriteta od strane Rusije pripojenjem Krima i podrškom separatistima u Donbasu) i migrantsku, važno je da se nastavi proces euroatlantske integracije posljednjeg jezgra neintegriranog geografskog dijela Evrope – Zapadnog Balkana.

Sve zemlje regiona teže da se pridruže Evropskoj uniji i NATO-u (osim Srbije kad je riječ o NATO-u). Sve one su na različitom stupnju procesa pristupanja. Ti procesi treba da se ubrzaju, iako se još traži da zemlje ispune neophodne uvjete. Kredibilitet i NATO-a i EU je na kocki. Ali sigurnost Evrope u cjelini je također na kocki pošto prijetnja od terorizma i rast populizma ugrožavaju demokratski liberalni poredak naših zemalja i društava.

Jens Stoltenberg, generalni sekretar NATO-a, je u posljednje vrijeme nekoliko puta posjetio Balkan, demonstrirajući ovaj novi fokus i pokazujući važnost koju NATO pripisuje sigurnosti. Otišao je u Crnu Goru da se pobrine kako bi se ispunili potrebni uvjeti za članstvo. Crna Gora je treća bivša jugoslovenska država koja će se pridružiti NATO-u nakon Slovenije (2014) i Hrvatske (2009). Makedonija je, iako u potpunosti kvalificirana da se pridruži NATO-u, spriječena zbog rasprave sa Grčkom oko njenog naziva; treba učiniti sve da bi se prevazišla ova neprihvatljiva situacija zbog dalje stabilnosti u regionu.

Stoltenberg je takođe otišao u važnu dvodnevnu posjetu Srbiji 19. i 20. novembra, kad je izjavio da je potreban novi početak u odnosima zbog ‘mnogih zajedničkih sigurnosnih izazova”. NATO je 1999. bombardovao bivšu Saveznu Republiku Jugoslaviju (Srbija s Kosovom i Crna Gora). Nakon početnih težnji da se pridruži NATO-u kao puna članica do 2004, Srbija se okrenula politici neutralnosti istovremeno tražeći najviši nivo saradnje sa Partnerstvom za mir NATO-a, sa individualnim Akcionim planom partnerstva o čemu je bio postignut dpgovor u januaru 2015. Stoltenbergova posjeta označava dalju važnu konsolidaciju odnosa.

Prisustvo američkog podpredsjednika Joea Bidena prošle sedmice na samitu osam lidera Zapadnog Balkana u Zagrebu-Bledu-Brijunima, je još jedan jasan signal da Sjedinjene Drežave ukazuju pažnju i podržavaju nastavak euroatlantskog puta regiona. Biden je izjavio da “Sjedinjene Države imaju izuzetan interes u ovom regionu posljednjih 25 godina”. A podpredsjednik je američki političar u posljednjih četvrt stoljeća sa možda najvećim interesovanjem i angažmanom u ovom regionu. I ovo putovanje u region potvrđuje američku odlučnost da podrži i proces pristupanja EU i proširenja NATO-a. Treba istaći da trupe NATO-a i dalje igraju važnu mirovnu ulogu na Kosovu.

Na kraju, američki državni sekretar John Kerry stigao je jučer u Beograd da prisustvuje ministarskoj konferenciji OSCE-a pod predsjedanjem Srbije. Tamo se sastao sa srbijanskim premijerom i večerao sa ruskim kolegom Sergeyem Lavrovim. Novo samopuzdanje Rusije, zajedno sa izbjegličkom krizom i zabrinutošću zbog globalne terorističke prijetnje, dalo je svim ovim posjetama posebnu važnost. Rusija je najavila da će zbog poziva NATO-a zaustaviti veliki broj ugovora o saradnji sa Crnom Gorom. Ovo predstavlja nastojanje Moskve da podrži one u regionu koji se protive euroatlantskoj integraciji. Rusija govori o približavanju NATO-a njenim granicama; sa članstvom Crne Gore NATO se uistinu odmiče od granica Rusije. Dovoljno je pogledati mapu da bi se vidjelo gdje Zapadni Balkan pripada.

Zato je ovaj novi fokus za Zapadni Balkan, prvo od strane EU sa “Berlinskim procesom” koji je pokrenula kancelarka Angela Merkel prošle godine da bi se povećao proces proširenja i sada novi naglasak koji su dale Sjedinjene Države, ključni su za stabilnost Evrope i treba ga što snažnije potaći. To je razlog što odnos EU-NATO treba pojačati i naglasiti u budućnosti.

At the 2012 NATO Summit in Chicago, then U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton famously said, “I believe this should be the last summit that is not an enlargement summit.” She was to be immediately disappointed: the subsequent NATO summit in Cardiff passed without new members.

Now, for the first time in seven years, a new country is being invited to become a member state. NATO’s proclaimed “open door policy” under Article 10 was reinforced this week with the invitation to Montenegro to join the Alliance. This is a significant moment for the pursuit of security and stability in the Balkans, and Europe more broadly as it confronts multiple challenges.

There has been a renewed focus on the Balkans recently, for good reasons. The goal of a Europe whole, free, and at peace is still not attained. And given the simultaneous crises in Ukraine (Russia’s breach of its sovereignty and territorial integrity by the annexation of Crimea and support for separatists in the Donbas) and the migration crisis, it is crucial that the process of Euroatlantic integration of the last core unintegrated geographic part of Europe - the Western Balkans - continues.

All the countries of the region aspire to join the European Union and NATO (except for Serbia to NATO). They are all at different stages of the accession process. These processes need to be accelerated, while still ensuring that the countries fulfill all the requisite conditions. The credibility of both NATO and the EU is at stake. But the security of Europe writ large is also at stake as the threat of terrorism and the rise of populism endanger the democratic liberal order of our states and societies.

NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg made several visits to the Balkans recently, demonstrating this renewal of focus and showing the importance NATO attaches to its security. He went to Montenegro to see that the necessary conditions for membership had been met. Montenegro is the third former Yugoslav country to join NATO after Slovenia in 2004 and Croatia in 2009. Macedonia, although fully eligible to join NATO, is prevented from doing so by the dispute over its name with Greece; every effort should be made to overcome this unacceptable situation for the sake of further stability in the region.

Stoltenberg also made an important two-day visit to Serbia on November 19 and 20, during which he declared there should be a fresh start in relations because of the “many common security challenges.” The former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (composed of Serbia with Kosovo and Montenegro) was bombed by NATO in 1999. After initially aspiring to join NATO as a full member until 2004, Serbia shifted to a policy of neutrality while seeking the highest level of cooperation under NATO’s Partnership for Peace, with an Individual Partnership Action Plan agreed upon in January 2015. Stoltenberg’s visit marks a further important consolidation of the relationship.

The presence last week of U.S. Vice President Joe Biden at the Zagreb Bled-Brijuni Western Balkans Summit of Eight leaders is another clear signal that the United States is paying attention and supporting the region’s continuing Euroatlantic path. Biden said that the United States has “had an overwhelming interest in this region for the last 25 years.” The vice president has been the U.S. politician with perhaps the greatest interest and engagement in this region for the past quarter century, and his trip to the region confirms U.S. resolve in supporting both the EU accession process and NATO enlargement. It should be said that NATO troops continue to play an important peacekeeping role in Kosovo.

Finally, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry arrived in Belgrade yesterday to attend the OSCE Ministerial meeting under Serbia’s presidency. There he met with the Serbian prime minister and dined with his Russian counterpart, Sergey Lavrov. Russia’s new assertiveness, coupled with the refugees crisis and concerns about global terror threats, have given all these visits a heightened relevance. Russia announced that it will stop a number of cooperation agreements with Montenegro given the NATO invitation. This represents an attempt by Moscow to support those in the region opposed to Euroatlantic integration. Russia speaks about NATO moving ever closer to its borders; with Montenegro’s membership, NATO is in fact moving away from Russia’s borders. It suffices to look at a map to see where the Western Balkans belongs.

That is why this renewed focus, first of the EU for the Western Balkans with the “Berlin Process” engaged by Chancellor Angela Merkel last year to enhance the enlargement process and now the renewed emphasis placed by the United States, are crucial for Europe’s stability and should be pursued even more vigorously. That is also why the EU-NATO relationship needs to be strengthened and enhanced in the future.

Ivan Vejvoda je podpredsjenik američkog programa German Marshall Fund.

Ivan Vejvoda is the senior vice president for programs at the German Marshall Fund of the United States.

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