Amb. Edward Ferguson:

Sjećanje na Srebrenicu

08.07.2015.

Amb. Edward Ferguson:

Remembering Srebrenica

08.07.2015.

U proteklih nekoliko dana mnogi su izrazili snažne stavove o planiranoj rezoluciji UN-a kojom će se obilježiti 20 godina od genocida u Srebrenici iz perioda strašnog rata 1990-tih u kojem su sve strane pretrpile velike žrtve, vojne i civilne.

Kada je Velika Britanija prihvatila odgovornost za izradu nacrta ove rezolucije, znali smo i rečeno nam je da će to biti težak zadatak, koji će čak i podrazumijevati određeni rizik. Odsustvo dovoljno ozbiljnih i održivih koraka ka pomirenju unutar Bosne i Hercegovine i šire regije u proteklih 20 godina znači da su rane još uvijek svježe.

Ipak, zajedno sa kolegama iz Ujedinjenih nacija, vjerujemo da ovu važnu godišnjicu treba obilježiti na obazriv i dostojanstven način. To ćemo zajednički nastojati da učinimo tokom rasprave i pripreme teksta rezolucije u Njujorku.

Srebrenica predstavlja najstrašniji jedinstveni događaj na tlu Evrope od kraja Drugog svjetskog rata. Preko 8.000 uglavnom muškaraca i dječaka sistematično je ubijeno i zakopano u masovne grobnice. Hiljade porodica izgubilo je svoje najmilije. Mnoge još uvijek traže njihova tijela. Ovo je, prije svega, ljudska tragedija ogromnih razmjera i ispravno je da se sjetimo žrtava, poginulih i preživjelih.

Naravno da smo duboko svjesni i da poštujemo činjenicu da ljudi Srebrenice nisu jedine žrtve rata. Mnoge druge porodice širom Bosne i Hercegovine – srpske, bošnjačke, hrvatske i druge – ostale su bez očeva, majki, braće, sestara, sinova i kćeri. Njihov bol je nama nedokučiv. Ali sam broj žrtava organiziranog ubijanja u Srebrenici je bez premca i mora biti predmetom posebne pažnje i pomena.

Drugi razlog je što ovaj događaj ima poseban značaj i za same Ujedinjene nacije. U svom izvještaju nakon ovog događaja, Kofi Annan, tadašnji generalni sekretar, priznao je da su Ujedinjene nacije načinile greške i da nisu učinile dovoljno da spriječe ubijanje. Ova godišnjica je i značajan trenutak u kojem će Ujedinjene nacije sagledati svoju prošlost i osigurati da se iz tragedija prošlosti izvuku pouke za budućnost. Ispravno je da tako postupimo.

Većina komentara proteklih dana usmjerena je na riječ ‘genocid’. Međutim, važno je shvatiti da, bez obzira koliko je to pitanje možda sporno na domaćoj političkoj sceni u BiH, unutar međunarodne zajednice ne postoje ozbiljne dvojbe o ovom pitanju. Dva nezavisna međunarodna suda, u kojima rade neki od najiskusnijih sudija svijeta, u nekoliko su navrata potvrdila da ovaj događaj odgovara pravnoj definiciji ‘genocida’. Bez obzira kako se pojedinci o tome očitovali, neosporna pravna činjenica je da je u Srebrenici počinjen genocid. Zbog toga su na sastanku održanom u Sarajevu prošle sedmice, svi članovi Upravnog odbora Vijeća za provedbu mira jednoglasno potvrdili kako genocid u Srebrenici, ratni zločini i zločini protiv čovječnosti počinjeni u toku sukoba u BiH ne smiju biti zaboravljeni niti poricani. Takva izjava ne predstavlja napad na Republiku Srpsku ili Srbiju ili bilo koga drugog. To je jednostavno iznošenje tužne istine.

Neki govore da ova rezolucija ugrožava pomirenje u Bosni i Hercegovini i široj regiji. Zapravo, političke reakcije na ovu rezoluciju ogolile su tužnu realnost da je premalo učinjeno i da je pokazano premalo liderstva u promociji i poticanju stvarnog, dubinskog i smislenog pomirenja. Nije bilo dovoljno iskrenosti o onom što se dešavalo na svim stranama; ljudi u BiH i regiji imaju pravo da znaju i da pokušaju razumjeti, kako bi mogli krenuti naprijed.

Ovo nije izazov za samo jednu grupu, narod ili zemlju. Znamo da je na svim stranama bilo nevinih žrtava tokom rata. Vjerujemo da rezolucija UN-a treba to izričito prepoznati i izraziti saučešće za sve žrtve rata.

Nadam se da će, kako se bliži ova godišnjica, svi politički lideri u Bosni i Hercegovini i široj regiji pažnju usmjeriti ne na politiku, već na ljudsku tragediju i to ne samo Srebrenice već cjelokupnog rata. Nadam se i da će i ovu rezoluciju shvatiti u njenoj pravoj namjeri: kao poticaj, dvadeset godina nakon rata, da se snažnije krene naprijed sa procesom pomirenja, da se suoči s prošlošću, da se iz nje izvuku pouke i da se radi na pravednom i trajnom miru za sve ljude BiH. Nema primjerenijeg načina da se iskaže poštovanje prema svim nevinim žrtvama rata.

In the last few days, a lot of people have been expressing strong views about the planned UN resolution to mark the 20th anniversary of the genocide in Srebrenica during the terrible war of the 1990s, where all sides suffered such terrible losses, military and civilian.

When the UK accepted the responsibility of drafting this resolution, we knew that it would be a difficult task, and even a risky one, as some have said. The absence of sufficient serious and sustained steps towards reconciliation within Bosnia and Herzegovina and the wider region over the past 20 years means that the wounds remain raw.

Nevertheless, together with colleagues at the United Nations, we believe that this anniversary is an important one to mark, in a careful and respectful way. That is what we will collectively be seeking to do as the text is discussed and prepared in New York.

Srebrenica represents the most terrible single event in mainland Europe since the end of the Second World War. Over 8,000, mostly men and boys, were systematically killed and buried in mass graves. Thousands of families lost their loved ones. Many are still searching for their bodies. First and foremost, this was a human tragedy on a massive scale and it is right that we should commemorate the victims, those who died and those who are left behind.

Of course, we recognise and we respect deeply the fact that the people of Srebrenica were not the only ones who suffered in the war. Many other families throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina – Serbs, Bosniaks, Croats and others – lost fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, sons and daughters. The pain they feel is something no-one else can understand. But the sheer number of those who died in the organised killings at Srebrenica is something without equal and must be the subject of special reflection and commemoration.

The second reason is that this was a hugely significant event for the United Nations itself. In his report after the event, Kofi Annan, then the Secretary General, recognised that the United Nations had made mistakes and that they had not done enough to prevent the killings. This anniversary represents an important moment for the United Nations to take stock, and to ensure that it has learned lessons for the future from the tragedies of the past. It is right that we should do so.

Much of the commentary in recent days has focused on the word ‘genocide’. But it is important to understand that, however difficult and divisive an issue it might be within BiH’s domestic politics, there is no serious debate about this within the international community. Two separate international courts, involving some of the most experienced judges in the world, have on a number of occasions confirmed that this event meets the legal definition of ‘genocide’. However one feels about it, it is an indisputable legal fact that genocide was committed in Srebrenica. That is why all the members of the Peace Implementation Council Steering Board, when it met in Sarajevo last week, united to reaffirm that genocide in Srebrenica, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the course of the conflict in BiH must not be forgotten or denied. To say so is not to attack Republika Srpska, or Serbia, or anyone else. It is a simple statement of a sad truth.

Some have said that this resolution threatens reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the wider region. In fact, the political reactions to this resolution expose the sad reality that too little has been done, and too little leadership has been shown, to promote and encourage real, deep and meaningful reconciliation. There hasn’t been enough honesty about what happened on all sides; people in BiH and the region are entitled to know and try to understand, to allow them to move forward.

This is not just a challenge for one single group, people or country. We know that all sides suffered the loss of innocent lives in the war. We believe that the UN resolution should explicitly recognise this, and express its sympathies to all victims of the war.

So I hope that, as this important anniversary approaches, all political leaders, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the wider region, will focus not on the politics, but instead on the human tragedy not just of Srebrenica, but of the war as a whole. And I hope that they will see this resolution for what it is intended to be: an encouragement, twenty years after the war, to take forward a process of reconciliation with greater urgency, to come to terms with the past, to learn its lessons, and to work for a just and lasting peace for all the people of BiH. There could be no more fitting tribute to the innocent victims of war.

Edward Ferguson Britanski ambasador u Bosni i Hercegovini

Edward Ferguson British Ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina

Tekst je prvobitno objavljen na Ambasadorovom blogu, i objavljuje se uz dozvolu autora (18.06.2015).

This article was originally published on the Ambassador’s Blog and is re-published with the permission from the authors (18.06.2015).

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