R. Bruce Hitchner:

Ustavni principi i budućnost Bosne i Hercegovine

Narod u BiH je opravdano nesretan sa statusom quo, ali to nije isto kao pretpostavljati da vjeruju kako rješenje leži u slaboj, neefikasnoj državnoj vlasti, previše jakim entitetima ili mogućem cijepanju zemlje. Možda je ono što oni najviše traže pravedna, nepristrana i funkcionalna vlada zasnovana na principima izraženim u Dejtonskom ustavu.

24.10.2015.

R. Bruce Hitchner:

Constitutional Principles and the Future of Bosnia-Herzegovina

The people of BiH are justifiably unhappy with the status quo, but that is not the same as assuming that they believe that the solution lies in weak, ineffective state government, overly robust sub-state entities, or the eventual breakup of the country. Perhaps what they seek most is just, equitable, and functional government based on the principles articulated in the Dayton Constitution.

24.10.2015.

U nedavnom govoru predsjednik Republike Srpske je izjavio “da je duhovno jedinstvo srpskog naroda nesumnjivo najveći garant opstanka dvije srpske zemlje (moj naglasak) – Srbije i Republike Srpske.”

I nastavio: “…Srbi su uvijek imali slobodu kad su imali državu a nikad nisu imali slobodu kad se srpskom državom upravljalo na drukčiji način ili kad su bili tlačeni…Stoga je primarni cilj imati državu, jaku državu. U ovom regionu Srpsku želi samo srpski narod, srpski narod uopšte, dok drugi ne žele da postoji.”

Predsjednik Dodik neprestano koristi termin sloboda koji je u vezi sa terminom srpska država, to naravno, znači da Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini mogu biti slobodni i sigurni samo ako imaju svoju jaku državu sa jakim institucijama.

Međutim, nije “duhovno jedinstvo srpskog naroda” to što garantuje opstanak RS, nego Dejtonski ustav. Tako se u preambuli potvrđuje “poštivanje ljudskog dostojanstva, sloboda i jednakost” svih građana u BiH. Ustav isto tako potvrđuje svoje opredjeljenje za:

mir, pravdu, toleranciju i pomirenje, s ubjeđenjem da demokratske vladine institucuije i poštene procedure na najbolji način obezbjeđuju mirne odnose unutar pluralističkog društva… (i) suverenitet, teritorijalni integritet i političku nezavisnost Bosne I Hercegovine u skladu sa međunarodnim pravom…

Kako ovi principi jasno govore, lijek za zaštitu Srba i RS u BiH ne leži u nebuloznim i razdvajajućim pozivima na nacionalističku „duhovnost“ ili u neprimjerenim izjavama o „državnosti“ srpskog entiteta koji ustavno postoji samo kao jedan od dva entiteta koji čine BiH, ali s pravima i zaštitom koje garantira ustav.

Sve ovo naravno pretpostavlja – nezavisno od sve prevrtljive političke retorike – da većina građana u BiH vjeruje i posvećena je principima Dejtonskog ustava. Narod u BiH je opravdano nesretan sa statusom quo, ali to nije isto kao pretpostavljati da vjeruju kako rješenje leži u slaboj, neefikasnoj državnoj vlasti, previše jakim entitetima ili mogućem cijepanju zemlje. Možda je ono što oni najviše traže pravedna, nepristrana i funkcionalna vlada zasnovana na principima izraženim u Dejtonskom ustavu.

In a recent speech, Republika Srpska President Milorad Dodik stated “that the spiritual unity that the Serb people possess is undoubtedly the greatest guarantor of the survival of two Serb countries [my emphasis]—Serbia and Republika Srpska.”

He went on: “…the Serbs always had freedom when they had a country and never had freedom if the Serb state was governed in a different manner or if they were oppressed…..Therefore having a state, a strong state, is a primary goal. In this region, Srpska is only desired by the Serb people, the Serb people in general, while the others wish it does not exist.”

President Dodik’s repeated use of the term freedom in association with the term Serb state implies that Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina can only be free and secure if they have their own strong state with strong institutions.

It is not, however, the “spiritual unity of the Serb people” which guarantees the survival of the RS, but the Dayton Constitution. Thus in the Preamble it affirms the “respect for human dignity, liberty, and equality” of all BiH citizens.The Constitution likewise asserts its commitment to:

peace, justice, tolerance, and reconciliation, convinced that democratic governmental institutions and fair procedures best produce peaceful relations within a pluralist society… [and the]sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with international law…

As these principles make clear, the remedy for protecting Serbs and the RS in BiH does not lie in nebulous and divisive appeals to nationalist “spirituality,” or in inapt assertions of the “statehood” of the Serb entity which constitutionally exists only as one of two entities forming BiH, but in the rights and protections granted by the constitution.

All of this of course presupposes - irrespective of all the volatile political rhetoric - that a majority of citizens in BiH believe in and are committed to the principles of the Dayton Constitution. The people of BiH are justifiably unhappy with the status quo, but that is not the same as assuming that they believe that the solution lies in weak, ineffective state government, overly robust sub-state entities, or the eventual breakup of the country. Perhaps what they seek most is just, equitable, and functional government based on the principles articulated in the Dayton Constitution.

R. Bruce Hitchner [glavni urednik: Dialogue-BiH2.0 – Dijalog] R. Bruce Hitchner je profesor na katedri klasičnih studija i međunarodnih odnosa i direktor programa studija za mir i pravdu na Tufts University. On je takođe i predsjedavajući upravnog odbora The Dayton Peace Accords Project.

R. Bruce Hitchner [Editor-in-Chief: Dialogue-BiH2.0 – Dijalog] R. Bruce Hitchner is Professor of Classics and International Relations and Director of the Peace and Justice Studies Program at Tufts University. He is also Chair of the Dayton Peace Accords Project.

R. Bruce Hitchner za Dijalog BiH2.0

​R. Bruce Hitchner for Dialogue BiH2.0

Odgovornost za informacije i gledišta iznesena u ovom članku, isključivo leži na autorima i nužno ne odražavaju mišljenje urednika Dialogue - BiH2.0 – Dijalog, njegovog savjetodavnog odbora, Tufts univerziteta, partnera, pobornika i donatora.

Responsibility for the information and views set out in this article lies entirely with the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Dialogue - BiH2.0 - Dijalog Editors, its Advisory Board, Tufts University, Partners, Supporters and Donors.}

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