Ditmir Bushati :

Veza između energije i sigurnosti u jugoistočnoj Evropi

Da bi se povećala energetska sigurnost u regionu, treba da bolje iskoristimo postojeće energetske potencijale. Drugim riječima, ono što je očajnički potrebno na ovom stupnju jeste povezivanje energetskih otoka u ovom dijelu Evrope.

15.09.2015.

Ditmir Bushati :

The energy-security nexus in south-east Europe

In order to increase energy security in the region we need to make better use of the existing energy potentials. To put it differently, what is desperately needed at this point is to connect the energy islands in this corner of Europe.

15.09.2015.

Još prije više od 60 godina energija je bila jedno od oruđa osnivača Evropske unije korišteno da inicira pomirenje na starom kontinentu. Danas više nego ikad ranije energija ostaje jedan od najhitnijih izazova i za EU i za njene zemlje kandidate.

Kad se pogleda na razvoj sigurnosti energije u prošloj deceniji, izgleda da je Evropa bila u stanju da prevaziđe veliki dio podjele između Istoka i Zapada. Ali ostaje jaz na relaciji sjever-jug, posebno kad se razmišlja o investiranjima u energiju i infrastrukturu. Ovo je vjerovatno jedna od najskrivenijih slabosti ustroja energije u Evropi.

Kako to nedavne krize u okruženjima istočne i južne Evrope stalno potvrđuju, sigurnost energije je postala jedan od najvažnijih geopolitičkih parametara uticaja za treće aktere u jugoistočnoj Evropi.

Zaključci Vijeća o energetskoj diplomatiji EU s pravom ističu da ‘diplomatska podrška treba da se fokusira na Južni gasni tok i strateški potencijal regiona istočnog Mediterana’. I zaista, kako su nas naučile sage o Nabucco i Južnom toku, virtualni gasovodi mogu izazvati neizvjesnost, razočarenje i geopolitički stres među regionalnim, evropskim i globalnim akterima. Štaviše, euro-kriza takođe treba da bude uračunata kad je u pitanju način na koji zemlje reagiraju na zagonetku o regionalnoj energetskoj sigurnosti.

U ovom zbrkanom kontekstu, Trans-jadranski gasovod (TAP) sada ostaje kao jedini opipljiv projekat šireg Južnog koridora.

Prva faza konstrukcije TAP-a počela je tek prije nekoliko sedmica u Albaniji i s njegovim završetkom zemlja će biti u poziciji da postane energetski hub, omogućujući snabdijevanje susjednih zemalja putem veoma potrebnog Jonsko-jadranskog gasovoda (IAP), dijela koji nedostaje u mozaiku energetske sigurnosti jugoistočne Evrope.

Ovi gasovodi će znatno promijeniti energetsku snabdjevenost jugoistočne Evrope, istovremeno pomažući da se izbjegnu visoke cijene i neprijatni događaji kao što su epske igre kojima je Istočna Evropa svjedočila tokom protekle decenije.

Energy was one of the tools the European Union’s founding fathers used to initiate the reconciliation of the old continent more than 60 years ago. Today as ever before, energy remains one of the most pressing challenges for both the EU and its candidate countries.

Looking back at energy security developments in the past decade, it seems that Europe has been able to overcome much of the East-West divide. But the North-South gap remains, especially when one considers energy investments and infrastructure. This is probably one of the hidden fragilities of Europe’s energy set-up.

As recent crises in Europe’s Eastern and Southern neighborhoods have consistently confirmed, energy security has become one of the most important geopolitical parameters of influence for third actors in south-east Europe.

It is against this background that on 20th July the Council of EU welcomed the EU Energy Diplomacy Action Plan proposed jointly by the High Representative and the Commission. This Action Plan seeks to initiate new synergies with EU partners and facilitate the diversification of energy connections and providers.

The Council Conclusions on EU Energy Diplomacy rightly point out that “diplomatic support should focus on the Southern Gas Corridor and the strategic potential of the Eastern-Mediterranean region”. Indeed, as the Nabucco and South Stream sagas have taught us, virtual pipelines can create uncertainty, disappointment and geopolitical stress among regional, European and global actors. Furthermore, the euro-crisis also needs to be factored in when it comes to the way countries react to the regional energy security conundrum.

In this muddled context, the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) currently remains the only tangible project of the wider South Corridor.

TAP’s first stage of construction started only few weeks ago in Albania and with its completion the country will be in a position to become an energy hub, enabling the supply of neighboring countries through the much needed Ionian Adriatic Pipeline (IAP), a missing piece in south-east Europe’s energy security toolkit.

These pipelines will considerably diversify South-east Europe’s energy supply whilst helping to avoid high prices and unpleasant events such as the epic standoffs Eastern Europe has been witnessing over the past decade.

Činjenica da se EU trenutno fokusira na konsolidaciju evropskog energetskog tržišta i vidi zemlje jugoistočne Evrope kao važne partnere u ovom procesu, izvjesno je dalji korak u pravom smjeru. Štaviše, Akcioni plan energetske diplomatije naglašava potrebu da se iskoriste postojeći finansijski instrumenti, kao što je Instrument za predpristupnu pomoć, da bi se podržala politika diversifikacije energije i transformacija sistema energije. Ali to nije dovoljno.

Da bi se povećala energetska sigurnost u regionu, treba da bolje iskoristimo postojeće energetske potencijale. Drugim riječima, ono što je očajnički potrebno na ovom stupnju jeste povezivanje energetskih otoka u ovom dijelu Evrope.

Bolja energetska povezanost će omogućiti zemljama regiona da se integriraju na većim razdaljinama i naglase svoju sposobnost suočavanja sa stresom u snabdijevanju. Ipak, postojeći projekti međupovezanosti nisu dovoljni da bi se krenulo prema povoljnoj sponi energija-sigurnost na jugoistoku Evrope. Godine 2014, Strategija za evropsku sigurnost i stres testovi ukazali su da zemlje na jugoistoku Evrope ostaju izložene energetskoj kriz i i slaboj infrastrukturi sektora. Stoga u ovom kontekstu treba više toga uraditi.

Prošlog avgusta njemačka kancelarka Angela Merkel okupila je premijere Zapadnog Balkana u Berlinu u nastojanju da revitalizira saradnju regiona i agendu integracije u EU. Takozvani Berlinski proces je donio pozitivne rezultate, pošto je skrenuo pažnju regiona prema nosiocima regionalnih infrastrukturalnih projekata.

Kako se zemlje Zapadnog Balkana pripremaju za njihov sljedeći samit koji će se ovog avgusta održati u Beču, ključno je da strategija EU za region obuhvati dimenziju energetske sigurnosti, kako bi potakla strana privatna ulaganja i bolji kanal fondova EU prema razvoju slabe energetske infrastrukture na jugoistoku Evrope.

Zemljama kandidatima EU na jugoistoku Evrope potrebni su zajednički investicioni projekti u obnovljivoj energiji, prekogranični interkonektori, značajnije korištenje hidroenergije i što je najvažnije – usklađenost sa energetskom legislacijom EU, posebno sa Trećim energetskim paketom EU.

U zahtjevnom geopolitičkom okruženju, krajnje je vrijeme da EU razradi odvažan i sveobuhvatan koncept energetske sigurnosti za jugoistok Evrope. Ovo će pomoći da se osigura dobra klima ulaganja evropskih kompanija u region i povrati zdrava konkurencija nasuprot koruptivnoj praksi koja obično nastoji da favorizira uključenje trećih aktera.

Zaista, povezivanje energetskih otoka na jugoistoku Evrope pomoći će gradnji istinskog regiona i na polju ekonomije i na polju sigurnosti, regiona koji može djelovati kao strateški partner za EU u široj povezanosti energetske sigurnosti.

Posljednje, ali ne manje važno, takav odvažan pristup će dalje konsolidovati regionalnu saradnju i agendu integracije Zapadnog Balkana u EU, slijedeći uspješan primjer šest osnivačkih zemalja članica Evropske unije.

The fact that the EU is currently focusing on the consolidation of the European energy market and sees the SEE countries as important partners in this process, is certainly a further step in the right direction. Moreover, the Action Plan of Energy Diplomacy underlines the necessity of taking advantage of existing financial instruments, such as the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, to support energy diversification policies and the transformation of the energy systems. But this is not enough.

In order to increase energy security in the region we need to make better use of the existing energy potentials. To put it differently, what is desperately needed at this point is to connect the energy islands in this corner of Europe.

Better energy connecivity will allow the countries of the region to integrate over longer distances and enhance their capability to face the supply shocks. Yet the existing projects of interconnection are not enough to get towards a favorable Energy-Security nexus in south-east Europe. In 2014, the European Security Strategy and the Stress Tests indicated that countries in south-east Europe remain exposed to energy crisis and the poor infrastructure of the sector. Therefore, more is needed to be done in this context.

Last August, German Chancellor Angela Merkel gathered up the Prime Ministers of the Western Balkans in Berlin in an attempt to revitalise the region’s cooperation and EU integration agenda. The so called Berlin process has since produced positive results, as it has turned the region’s attention towards flagship regional infrastructure projects.

As the Western Balkan countries are bracing themselves for their next summit to be held in Vienna this August, it is crucial that the EU’s strategy for the region encompasses the energy security dimension, in order to encourage foreign private investment and better channel of EU funds towards the development of south-east Europe’s poor energy infrastructure.

EU candidate countries in south-east Europe need joint investment projects in renewable energy, cross-border interconnectors, more significant use of hydropower, and most importantly – alignment with EU energy legislation, in particular with the EU Third Energy Package.

In a challenging geopolitical landscape, it is high time for the EU to elaborate a bold and comprehensive energy security concept for south-east Europe. This will help to ensure a good investment climate for European companies in the region and bring back healthy competition against corruptive practices that usually tend to favor the involvement of third actors.

Indeed, connecting the energy islands in south-east Europe will help to build a true region in both economic and security terms, a region that can act as a strategic partner for the EU in the broader energy security nexus.

Last, but not least, such a bold approach will further consolidate the regional cooperation and the EU integration agenda of the Western Balkans, following the successful example of the six founding member states of the European Union.

Ditmir Bushati je ministar vanjskih poslova Albanije i član Vijeća ECFR

Ditmir Bushati is Minister of Foreign Affairs for Albania and an ECFR Council member

​Prvobitno je objavljen na portalu European Council on Foreign Relations (31.07.2015)

Prevod: Dijalog BiH2.0

It was originally published on the European Council on Foreign Relations portal (31.07.2015)

Odgovornost za informacije i gledišta iznesena u ovom članku, isključivo leži na autorima i nužno ne odražavaju mišljenje urednika Dialogue - BiH2.0 – Dijalog, njegovog savjetodavnog odbora, Tufts univerziteta, partnera, pobornika i donatora.

Responsibility for the information and views set out in this article lies entirely with the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Dialogue - BiH2.0 - Dijalog Editors, its Advisory Board, Tufts University, Partners, Supporters and Donors.}

DIALOGUE - BIH2.0 - DIJALOG je posvećena promociji otvorenog pristupa politici, informacijama i djelovanju vlasti, na prostoru Bosne i Hercegovine.
DIALOGUE - BIH2.0 - DIJALOG is committed to promoting Open Policy, Open Information, and Open Government across Bosnia-Herzegovina.

© DIALOGUE - BIH2.0 - DIJALOG (2015)