Philippe Leroux Martin:

Ustavne promjene u BiH

18.11.2014.

Philippe Leroux Martin:

BiH Constitutional Change

18.11.2014.

“Kako bi ove promjene bile održive njih moraju provesti sami Bosanci. One ne mogu biti nametnute izvana. Međunarodna zajednica ima jasnu ulogu u postavljanju nekoliko širih uslova i okvira u kojima se ove promjene mogu desiti, ali isto tako mislim da međunarodna zajednica nije u poziciji na diktira Bosancima kako treba da izgleda njihov ustav. Ne može to činiti zbog samog ustava.

Neophodno je da postoji politički proces koji bi dozvolio svim akterima da postignu konsenzus u vezi sa nizom ustavnih promjena. To ne mora biti sveobuhvatan skup promjena, ali Evropska unija može usloviti napredak u procesu postizanja članstva i progres u procesu intergacija provedbom niza postepenih promjena u ustavnoj strukturi.

Kada posmatramo mjere reforme ustava o kojima se raspravljalo i o kojima su se vodile debate prije Parlamentarne skupštine u 2006. godini, onda vidimo da odredbe amandmana na Ustav nisu bile osobito nametljive. Imali smo niz promjena koje ne možemo baš nazvati površnim, ali niz ograničenih promjena na centralnom nivou vlasti. Dakle, zamislivo je da se proces ustavnih promjena nastavi postupno i da se pri tome može koristiti model iz 2006. godine, ne kao završnu već kao početnu tačku za dalje diskusije.

Drugi element za ustavne promjene odnosi se na slučaj Sejdić-Finci i misim da bi to mogao biti prvi korak u izmjeni Ustava na način da Bosna postane funkcionalna i demokratska zemlja. Smatram da bi trebao biti jedan od prioriteta ove vlade da što prije rješava slučaj Sejdić-Finci i time uskladi Ustav sa zahtjevima Evropske konvencije o ljudskim pravima. U tom slučaju bi Vlada pokazala da je sposobna da se uhvati ukoštac sa izmjenama Ustava.

Ustavne promjene vidim kao postepen proces. Mislim da bi polazna tačka za ovakav postepen proces ustavnih reformi mogla biti rješavanje slučaja Sejdić-Finci. Slučaj Sejdić-Finci i odluka Evropskog suda za ljudska prava zahtijevaju niz promjena Ustava. Ovdje ne govorimo o potpunoj izmjeni ustavne strukture već o određenim promjenama kroz set pravila za izbor članova Predsjedništva u skladu sa međunarodnim obavezama. Dakle, ovo bi bila konkretna polazna tačka za ustavne promjene. Smatram da je izuzetno važno da se Vlada što prije pozabavi ovim pitanjem kako bi pokazala da je ozbiljna kada je riječ o njenim evropskim aspiracijama i da je sposobna da započne niz ustavnih promjena koje bi bile postepene, koje bi se bazirale na konsenzusu i koje bi provodili ljudi iz zemlje. To je prilika za ovu vladu da započne ovaj proces.”

“For these changes to be sustainable they have to be developed by Bosnians themselves. They cannot be imposed by the outside world. The international community has a clear role in setting a number of broad conditions and a framework in which these changes can occur, but I don’t think that the international community is in a position to dictate to Bosnians how their constitution should look like. It cannot do that because of the constitution itself.

There needs to be a political process that will allow these actors to reach consensus on a number of constitutional changes. It doesn’t have to be a comprehensive set of changes, but the European Union could condition membership progression or integration progression on reaching a number of incremental changes through the constitutional structure.

When we look at the provisions that were discussed and were debated before the Parliamentary assembly in 2006 to reform the Constitution, the provisions of the Amendments to the Constitution were not particularly intrusive. We were looking at a number of we can’t say superficial changes, but a number of limited changes through the central level of institutions. So one could imagine that a constitutional reform process proceeds incrementally and could use the 2006 model, not as a definite point but as a starting point for discussions.

Another element of constitutional change pertains through the Sejdić-Finci case and I think that that could be the first step in the changing the Constitution in a way that makes Bosnia a more functional and democratic state. I think that would be a priority of this government to seek to quickly address the Sejdić-Finci case and comply with the requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights. If the government does so then it would demonstrate that it is able to tackle the constitutional change.

I see the process of constitutional change as a gradual one. I think one of the starting points for a gradual process of constitutional reform could very well be the Sejdić-Finci case. The Sejdić-Finci case and the decision of the European Court of Human Rights require a number of changes to the Constitution. We are not talking about an overhaul of the constitutional structure but about specific changes through one set of rules of eligibility through the Presidency in order to comply with international obligations. So that would be a very focused starting point for constitutional change. I think it’s extremely important for the government to tackle this earlier on to show that it is serious about its European aspirations and that it is capable of embarking on a series of changes to the Constitution that would be gradual, that would be based on consensus and that would be domestically led. So I think that is a clear opportunity for this government to start the process.”

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